Home of 16" Reverse Osmosis Design Thinking

 

WATER SYSTEMS - APPLICATIONS

"... A focussed business strategy - benefits our clients with specialist knowledge and application consulting, design and experience..." 

At GrahamTek we are not everything to everyone. We are very specific on our systems design and applications. We focus on two categories (i) Standard "Off-the-Shelf" and (ii) Bespoke Mega System designs of 50 ML/day and upwards. The applications outlined below are our key focus points and our clients rank amongst the global super major entities. Register here as a GrahamTek Member to gain access to the financial and business models of these industry applications….

Standard Off-the-Shelf

 

Our standard “Off-the-Shelf” equipment of 1 ML/Day, 2ML/day, 5ML/day can be applied to seawater desalination, waste water and brackish water scenarios. These units can be deployed within 90 to 180 days from order confirmation date. GrahamTek usually deploy these units as a first phase deployment to a larger contract. The units are typically used as technology demonstrators and feasibility study units. The modular design allows these units to be included in the larger scale units during subsequent phases. Click here for detailed unit specifications.

 


Waste Water Treatment

 Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes provide a cost-effective water purification solution for wastewater reclamation facilities. GrahamTek has substantial experience in Mega Waste Treatment facilities some of the larger units exceeding 50 Mega Liter per day have been successfully in operation for more than 8 years. It holds no less than 11 International Patents on its unique Submersible Membrane Bio Reactor (S-MBR) which when combined with its SuperFlux 16” RO systems provide a full turnkey and cost effective operation for municipal Waste Water Treatment facilities.

Due to the growing demand for high quality water in urban areas, purification of wastewater has become one of the preferred means to augment public water resources. 
GrahamTek RO systems have been proven to successfully treat such waste water and provide water that exceeds reuse quality requirements. 
Numerous large-scale commercial RO plants are in use to reclaim municipal wastewater. These include various 50,000 m3/day plants such as West Basin, California, the Kranji 40,000 m3/d in Singapore, and the 32,000 m3/d Bedok plant in Singapore, some of which have more than 10 years operational track record with this membrane technology. Larger plants have recently begun operation such as the 380,000 m3/d plant for Sulabaiya, Kuwait,  or will soon begin operation (270,000 m3/d plant in Orange County, California, USA), and the 170,000 m3/d Ulu Pandan plant in Singapore. The magnitude of these RO-based reclamation plants demonstrates the acceptance that this technology has gained recently. GrahamTek can also provide small scale units for remote and rural applications - below indicates the an installed solution in Botswana - Southern Africa. 



A typical process for municipal wastewater consists of primary, secondary and tertiary treatments. The resulting effluent is low in turbidity and can be disinfected for discharge. However, this process does not reduce the level of dissolved solids and the water is not generally suitable for reuse at this stage. GrahamTek Waste Water Treatment designs have a proven track record to reclaim water with consistent results that exceed World Health Organisation standards for potable water. Click here for technical data related to some of the largest Waste Water Treatment installations done by GrahamTek…

 

Radio Active Water Treatment

GrahamTek is one of very few global companies that has experience in the treatment of Radio Active water in complex environments. Treatments are specifically applied to Uranium and Radium mines and refineries for cleaning of contaminated equipment and other materials where it has experience in wastewater containing high concentrations of Uranium 226 isotopes. These are challenging designs requiring minimal footprint, high degree of safety, residuals management and varying feedwater matrixes. Click here to enquire about GrahamTek’s applications for Radio Active Water Treatments…

Ports and Harbours

Ports are significant users of fresh water, they are also situated on the largest reservoir of water - the sea. Desalination is a solution that will help the cities that are close to or adjacent to ports simply by removing the port from the major water grid of the city. 


An average medium sized port will consume approximately 10 Million litres of fresh water per day. This water is used in cleaning, loading vessels, ice making and various other hydraulic purposes. The GrahamTek 16” SuperFlux system is already in use in a number of ports where it supplies vessels and ports with fresh water with both industrial quality and drinking water quality. Click here to view a case study for port use of water.


Disaster Relief

 The high mobility units of GrahamTek is able to provide mobile disaster relieve in remote locations ranging from island to desert locations. The systems are robust and can be deployed within a short space of time.  


Mining

 

Water is essential for mining operations globally. It is typically used in Dust Suppression, Equipment Cleaning, Wet Grinding, Washing, Flotation, Leaching, Tailing Pumping, Product Transportation, Cooling & Pollution Control. Regional and Public Water utilities are impacted by mining operations such as Acid Rock Drainage from mine waste, Residual Chemicals inline waste water, Tailings water and other Significant Water use. On the other hand mines are subjected to higher regulations in terms of wastewater effluent and environmental liability while facing an increasing level of water shortages. The contention between mine water demand and the general population in rural areas are increasing as a result of drought and increasing demand of urban water requirements. Mines globally are experiencing a continued increase in regulations relating to withdrawal of water from public sources for mining operations. As a result mines require to evaluate alternative sources for water.

The GrahamTek custom designed Submersible Membrane Bio Reactor (S-MBR) combined with its SuperFlux 16” RO systems provide a full turnkey and cost effective operation for mines to Reuse Mine Water, Treat Effluent Water, Treat Acid Rock Drainage, Treat Acid Mine Drainage and remove Metal from wastewater.

Particular Mining Applications:
REUSE: The GrahamTek 16” SuperFlux systems can be completely integrated with mine operations. Being able to operate in unforgiving conditions demanding in excess of 70 Bar pressures, high temperature, low energy, high volume and a small footprint, makes GrahamTek the most applicable deep shaft water reuse solution. Units as small as 700 L/min to as large as 14 000 L/min can be provided.      
RECOVERY: Reopening of closed mines where shafts or pits are flooded with Acid Rock Drainage and other waste water. 
DEWATERING, DRAINING & ACID WATER: Draining and withdrawal of water from shafts or pits flooded to surface including acid drainage is achieved using a custom designed pre filtration and reverse osmosis unit. The GrahamTek solutions are designed to achieve dewatering capacities in excess of 30 ML/day applications, that will remove elevated concentrations of metals and discharge water to industrial or potable standards. An integrated solution approach using the GrahamTek S-MBR pre-filtration and 16” SuperFlux system effectively removes metals, arsenic, Suspended solids and achieves balanced PH levels.


Mining water systems designs are complex that require flexibility for varying feed water qualities at different depths with a view to produce a consistent quality of product water. In addition systems require a high degree of robust mobility for deployment at remote locations where there are limited availability of spares, trained operators and energy sources.  The slides below indicates a highly robust unit built for one client.


Food, Textile and Beverage 

A typical application in the Food and Beverage industry relates to Dairy farming, equally Wastewater in abattoirs could be treated and reused as indicated below. The GrahamTek 16” SuperFlux system is well suited for these operations and is able to reclaim much of the wastewater and reduce not only the strain on Public resources but also on the cost of water for these industries. Register here as a GrahamTek Member to gain access to the financial and business models of these industries….  

 

DAIRY:  
Water use in dairies are on a large scale and requires a high degree of purity. An average dairy facility will use 1 300 000 Liters of fresh water per day of which between 40%-80% will be wastewater depending on the type of dairy product being made. Processing water, which includes water used in the cooling and heating process,  is normally free of pollutants and can  be reused or just discharged into the storm water system generally used for rain runoff water, with minimum treatment required.
Waste waters emanate mainly from the cleaning of equipment that has been in contact with milk or milk products, spillage of milk and milk products, whey, pressings and brines, CIP cleaning options, and waters resulting from equipment malfunctions and even operational errors. This wastewater stream may contain anything from milk, cheese, whey, cream, separator and clarifier dairy waters, to dilute yogurt, starter culture, and dilute fruit and stabilizing compounds. Much of this wastewater is combined with sanitary wastewater which is normally piped directly to a sewage works. 
TEXTILE
Water is used extensively throughout textile processing operations. Almost all dyes, specialty chemicals, and finishing chemicals are applied to textile substrates from water baths. In addition, most fabric preparation steps, including desizing, scouring, bleaching, and mercerizing, use water. 

These processes uses approximately 159-220 litres of water for every 1 Kg of textile processed, resulting in a high volume user and polluter of water. Textile industries are facing new regulatory requirements globally that affect their costs to dispose of water through normal waste water systems. It is forcing the industry to evaluate reuse of water sources on a large and competitive scale. An average sized textile factory uses 1 100 000 litres of potable water per day and the larger dye houses use up to 10.4 Million Liters per day. Effluent is at an average rate of 78%-83% of fresh water use. Effluent starts at the early stage of the raw material where material such as cotton, leather, wool contains several types of pollutant including; blood, faeces, animal dip, crop protection chemicals etc. The second leg of textile processing contains several other chemicals such as salts, acids, bases, buffers, oxidising agents, reducing agents, metals, waxes, oils, fibre, etc. 

Power Stations

 Seawater Desalination and Power Plants is an ideal partnership. The benefit of a specific integrated design combination whereby turbine power is utilised in the high pressure process for desalination can significantly reduce the cost of water production. GrahamTek has significant experience in providing seawater desalination to power plants. Click here to review technical reports on similar applications.


Oil and Gas 

GrahamTek has proven technology in the Oil and Gas industry with some of its clients being the global super major companies. Register here as a GrahamTek Member to gain access to the financial and business models of these industries. The GrahamTek 16" SuperFlux RO systems have applications in the following speciality areas:

WATER BASED DRILLING MUDS

 GrahamTek 16” SuperFlux RO is used to produce water for the Water Based Muds (WBM) used by drilling rigs in oil and gas exploration. 

Mud is a vital part of drilling operations. It provides hydrostatic pressure on the borehole wall to prevent uncontrolled production of reservoir fluids, lubricates and cools the drill bit, carries the drill cuttings up to the surface, forms a "filter-cake" on the borehole wall to prevent drilling fluid invasion, provides an information medium for well logging, and helps the drilling by fracturing the rock from the jets in the bit. 
The specific quality of water has a major impact on the fluid dynamics used in the drilling process, it must positively influence and be chemically compatible with the formations being drilled. Salinity must be specifically maintained so as not to cause clay swelling or other problems such as changes in the thixotropic or shear thinning quality of the WBM. Providing a consistent high quality industrial drilling water is achieved through a sea water desalination process which includes pre filtration and the application of a specific design application of the GrahamTek 16” SuperFlux system. Click here to see a case study of the GrahamTek in a West Africa offshore drilling application.

 



FRACKING WATER

Presently approximately 60 000 new fracking wells are created annually. Each well being approximately 3 000 meters deep can use up four to eight million gallons (15,150 m3 to 30,300 m3) of water, typically within about a one week period to complete the fracking process. 

 Combining the specific desalination design of GrahamTek 16” SuperFlux with the hydraulic fracking operation can reduce the specific energy requirement of the operation. GrahamTek's techniques reduce the Environmental Impact that normal wastewater flowback will create from the fracking operation by creating water suitable to agriculture, industry and potable water can also be achieved by injecting the treated waste water (WHO potable standard) into subterranean aquifers.  

Wastewater generated from fracking wells, requires disposal or recycling. Up to 60% of the water injected into a wellhead during the fracking process will discharge back out of the well shortly thereafter, as flowback wastewater. Thereafter, and for the life of the wellhead (10-20 years), it will discharge up to 100,000 gallons (378 m3/day) of wastewater. This wastewater needs to be captured, and disposed of or recycled. 
The costs for hauling away wastewater for deep-well injection ranges between $3 and $7 per barrel ($0.35 to $0.85 per cubic metre). For a newly fraced well, the cost could reach $100,000 for transporting over 14,000 barrels (1,670 m3) of flowback – water levels produced from each basin, and indeed, each wellhead can vary. Plus, an additional potential 3400 barrels (405 cubic metres) each day of transported produced wastewater, at $20,000 per day. To haul water off-site for disposal over the 20 year life of a hydraulic fracturing well-project, it was estimated to cost $160 million (includes trucking costs, water disposal costs and labour). Wastewater associated with shale oil and gas extraction can contain high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS), fracturing fluid additives, total suspended solids (TSS), hardness compounds, metals, oil and gas, bacteria and bacteria disinfection agents, and naturally occurring radioactive materials. 
In recent years Fracking companies are facing increasing legislation to prevent surface disposing and deep well injection disposing of blowback wastewater. This is forcing fracking companies to evaluate alternative options for blowback wastewater treatment. Due to the remote locations the solutions require a high degree of robust mobility for deployment at remote locations where there are limited availability of spares, trained operators and energy sources. GrahamTek has designed for one of its clients a high mobility unit that combines seawater desalination and flowback wastewater reuse capability. The advance benefits of this technology is restocking acquirers with potable water which reduces the total environmental of fracking on the communities.

 








Cape Talk Interview on Cape Town Desalination Tender

August 2017

Listen here


GrahamTek Submits White Paper to Cape Town Municipality on Desalination Solution

June 2017

Read more


DuPont Teams Up with GrahamTek to Provide Sustainable Solutions in Saudi Arabia

May 2017

Read more


Off Grid Water Treatment
Download a recent article from Engineering News
Engineering News.pdf (491.45KB)
Off Grid Water Treatment
Download a recent article from Engineering News
Engineering News.pdf (491.45KB)